Kidney donation terms

Kidney Transplant

Kidney donation is defined as a surgical operation that aims to place a new kidney from a living or deceased donor, to a person whose kidneys are no longer able to perform their functions, as the patient undergoes the operation under the influence of general anesthesia, and this surgery lasts 3-4 hours During which the doctor places the donated kidney in the lower abdomen , near the thigh, and kidney transplantation is chosen for those with the last stages of kidney failure (in English: End-Stage Renal Disease); This is because it provides a better quality of life for the patient instead of permanent kidney dialysis , as the possibility of death of the patient becomes less, and it is less costly than the patient having to dialysis throughout his life, and it should be noted that there are many conditions for a kidney transplant; As it may not be suitable for all patients.

Kidney donation


Kidney donation terms

Usually the medical team performs evaluation tests before performing the operation; This is to determine the suitability of the kidney that will be transplanted to the patient, in terms of blood and tissue type, and everyone must perform these tests, regardless of the type of donor or his relationship to the patient, and the following is a statement of the most prominent criteria that are evaluated to determine the possibility of performing the operation:

  • Blood Type: There are four main types of blood , A, B, AB, and O. The recipient’s blood and the donor’s blood must be of the same blood type, or their two types must be compatible as follows:
    • Blood type A corresponds to blood types A or O.
    • Type B blood corresponds to blood types B or O.
    • Type AB blood is compatible with all blood types A, B, O, and AB; It is called the Universal Recipient.
    • Type AB blood is compatible with all blood types A, B, O, and AB; It is called the Universal Recipient.
    • Blood type O is compatible with type O blood only, and although a patient with type O blood can only receive a kidney from a donor of the same blood type, it is called the Universal Donor (in English: Universal Donor) for the possibility of donating it to all blood types.
  • Tissue type: Or human leukocyte antigens examination found in the cells of the body. This examination assesses the ability of the donated kidney to function for a long time, and the possibility of the body rejecting it; Through the genetic markers present in them.
  • Compatibility: (English: Crossmatch) The immune system produces antibodies (English: Antibodies) to fight foreign bodies that enter the body: such as bacteria and viruses . The compatibility check evaluates the probability of the recipient’s immune system identifying the donor’s kidney as a foreign body; By mixing a blood sample from the donor with a blood sample from the patient and observing whether the antibodies from the patient’s body will fight the antibodies in the donor’s body; This is because the recipient’s body will destroy the donor kidney after the kidney transplant if there are antibodies against the donor kidney.

Kidney donation Donor Terms

In fact, in addition to deceased people, healthy and living people can donate many organs such as a kidney or part of the organs: the lung, the liver, and the pancreas , and the surgeon usually takes the kidney from the donor in two ways: either through an open surgery during which he makes a wound Its length is approximately 20 cm, or by performing the operation through laparoscopic surgery by inserting thin tubes through four small incisions of no more than ten centimeters in length, after which the donor can be discharged from the hospital after the operation within 2-4 days. [1] [4] In addition to the aforementioned examinations and evaluations, there are some conditions for people to be able to donate a kidney, and the following is a description of some of them:

  • The donor’s consent to donate a whole is voluntary.
  • The kidney function of the donor is normal.
  • That the person be healthy, physically, and mentally.
  • The age of the donor must be more than 18 years.
  • Have a body mass index of less than 35 kg/m².
  • The donor does not suffer from high blood pressure , diabetes, cancer, hepatitis , or any of the organic or infectious diseases.

Kidney donation receiver terms

People with end-stage kidney failure are usually candidates for a kidney transplant. As the kidneys in this case lose their ability to filter and filter the body of toxins, which leads to their accumulation in the body, but there are some cases that can prevent the operation of the affected people, and the following is a statement of some of the most important ones:

  • old age; Whereas, people over the age of 60 undergo a complete cardiac and physical evaluation before acknowledging their eligibility for the operation.
  • Having had a recent heart attack or severe heart disease.
  • Current or previous cancer.
  • Having a mental disorder.
  • dementia;
  • Addiction to alcohol or drugs.
  • Infection.
  • A defect in the structure of the urinary canal without surgery to correct it.